Assessment of continental hydrosphere loading using GNSS measurements
Presented paper is dedicated to problems of deformation of the Earth's crust as a response to the surface loading caused by continental waters. The aim of this study was to specify areas particularly vulnerable to studied deformation and to compare calculated and observed displacements. Information of the continental water volume was taken from the WaterGAP Global Hydrological Model. Calculated values of the deformations were verified with the results obtained with programs SPOTL and grat. Vertical deformations were almost 10 times higher than the deformation in the horizontal plane, for which reason later part of the paper focuses on the former. In order to check agreement of the calculated and observed deformation 23 stations of International GNSS Service (IGS) were selected and divided into three groups (inland,
near the shoreline and islands). Before comparison outliers and discontinuities were removed from GNSS observations. Modelled and observed signals were centred. The analysed time series of the vertical displacements showed that only for the inland stations it is possible to effectively remove displacements caused by mass transfer in the hydrosphere. For stations located in the coastal regions or islands, it is necessary to consider additional movement effects resulting from indirect ocean tidal loading or atmosphere loading.
Agnew, D. C. (2012). SPOTL: Some Programs for Ocean-Tide Loading. Technical Report. Retrieved from http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~agnew/Spotl/spotlmain.html
Benavent, M., Arnoso, J., & Montesinos, F. G. (2005). Computation of surface displacements, tilt and gravity variations due to ocean tide loading. Fisica de la Tierra, 97-112.
Döll, P., Alcamo, J., Henrichs, T., Kaspar, F., Lehner, B., Rösch, T., & Siebert, S. (2001). The Global Integrated Water Model WaterGAP 2.1. EuroWasser: The global integrated water model WaterGAP 2.1, 2.1-2.18.
Döll, P., Kaspar, F., & Lehner, B. (2003). A global hydrological model for deriving water availability indicators: model tuning and validation. Journal of Hydrology, 270(1-2), 105-134.
Dow, J. M., Neilan, R. E., & Rizos, C. (2009, mar). The International GNSS Service in a changing landscape of Global Navigation Satellite Systems. Journal of Geodesy, 83, 191-198. doi: 10.1007/s00190-008-0300-3
Farrell, W. E. (1972). Deformation of the Earth by surface loads. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, 10.3, 761-797.
Güntner, A., Stuck, J., Werth, S., Döll, P., Verzano, K., & Merz, B. (2007). A global analysis of temporal and spatial variations in continental water storage. Water Resources Research, 43(W05416). doi: DOI:10.1029/2006WR005247
Hunger, M., & Döll, P. (2008). Value of river discharge data for global-scale hydrological modeling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 12, 841-861. Retrieved from http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/12/841/2008/hess-12-841-2008.html doi: 10.5194/hess-12-841-2008
Petit, G., & Luzum, B. (2010). IERS Technical Note 36. 36 Frankfurt am Main: Verlag des Bundesamts für Kartographie und Geodäsie: IERS Convention Centre. Retrieved from http://www.iers.org/nn_11216/IERS/EN/Publications/TechnicalNotes/tn36.html
Rajner, M. (2013, 9). Grat - open source software for computing atmospheric gravity correction numerical weather models. Potsdam. Retrieved from https://github.com/mrajner/grat
Rajner, M., & Liwosz, T. (2011). Studies of crustal deformation due to hydrological loading on GPS height estimates. Geodesy and Cartography, 60.2, 137-146. doi: 10.2478/v10277-012-0012-y
Tervo, M., Virtanen, H., & Bilker-Koivula, M. (2006). Environmental loading effects on GPS time series. Bull. d’Inf. Marées Terr , 142(11), 407–11.
van Dam, T., Plag, H.-P., Francis, O., & Gegout, P. (2003). Proceedings of the IERSWorkshop on Combination Research and Global Geophysical Fluids (Vol. IERS Technical Note 30). Munich, Germany: Bavarian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.iers.org/nn_11216/IERS/EN/Publications/TechnicalNotes/tn30.html
van Dam, T., Wahr, J., Milly, P., Shmakin, A., Blewitt, G., Lavallée, D., & Larson, K. (2001, feb). Crustal displacements due to continental water loading. Geophysical Research Letter , No 28, 651-654. doi: 10.1029/2000GL012120
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics 2014-2017, e-mail: email@example.com